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Elephant Shrew: Characteristics, Diet, Facts & More [Fact Sheet]

Elephant shrews, or sengis, are small insectivorous mammals native to Africa, known for their distinctive long noses and agile movements. Despite their name, they are not closely related to shrews or elephants but occupy a unique place in the mammalian family tree.

This article offers a comprehensive look at elephant shrews, covering their classification, habitat, behavior, and the ecological role they play in their natural habitats.

The Elephant Shrew at a Glance


Class:Mammalia (Mammals)
Genus:Various, including Elephantulus, Rhynchocyon, and others

Essential Information

Average Size:Length: 4 to 12 inches (10 to 30 cm)
Average Weight:1.1 to 17.6 ounces (30 to 500 grams)
Average Lifespan:2 to 4 years in the wild
Geographical Range:Sub-Saharan Africa
Conservation Status:Ranges from Least Concern to Endangered, depending on the species (IUCN Red List)

Species and Subspecies

Elephant shrews comprise about 20 species classified under several genera, with the most notable being Elephantulus and Rhynchocyon. Key differences between these genera include size, color, and habitat preference.

  • Elephantulus species are generally smaller, have shorter legs, and are found in drier environments.
  • Rhynchocyon species, also known as giant elephant shrews, are larger and inhabit more forested, humid environments.

Each species of elephant shrew has unique adaptations to its specific habitat, but all share common traits such as elongated noses and a diet primarily consisting of insects.

Round-eared elephant shrew (Macroscelides proboscideus)
Round-eared elephant shrew (Macroscelides proboscideus)


Elephant shrews are small, slender mammals with a distinctive elongated nose that resembles an elephant’s trunk, which they use to forage for food. Their fur varies in color from species to species, ranging from grey to reddish-brown, often with a lighter underbelly.

Their legs are relatively long for their body size, contributing to their agility and speed. They have a long, thin tail that helps with balance. Despite their small size, elephant shrews are known for their remarkable speed and agility, enabling them to quickly dart away from predators.

Sexual dimorphism in elephant shrews is generally minimal, although in some species, males may be slightly larger than females. They have large eyes and excellent vision, well-adapted to their active lifestyle.

Habitat and Distribution

Elephant shrews are found exclusively in Sub-Saharan Africa. They inhabit a wide range of habitats, from dense forests to dry savannas and rocky outcrops. Their presence in diverse habitats is a testament to their adaptability and the varied ecological niches they occupy.

The specific habitat preference varies among different species, with some preferring the dense cover of forests, while others thrive in more open, arid environments. Their ability to adapt to various habitats has allowed them to occupy a wide geographical range across the continent.

Round-eared elephant shrew
Round-eared elephant shrew


Elephant shrews are primarily diurnal, active during the day. They are solitary creatures, with each individual maintaining its own territory. They use their keen sense of smell and vision to forage and are constantly on the move, searching for food.

Elephant shrews are generally not social animals, except during mating or when a mother is raising her young. They are territorial and communicate through scent markings and vocalizations to establish boundaries and ward off intruders.

Communication in elephant shrews involves a series of chirps, squeaks, and other vocalizations, particularly during mating or as an alarm call. They also use scent glands to mark their territory and communicate their presence to other elephant shrews.

The behavior of elephant shrews, from their solitary lifestyle to their agile movements, showcases their adaptation to life in diverse African landscapes, constantly on alert for both food and predators.

Diet and Feeding Behavior

Elephant shrews are primarily insectivorous, feeding on a variety of insects such as ants, termites, beetles, and worms. Their elongated snouts are adept at probing into crevices and leaf litter to locate prey. Some species also consume small amounts of plant matter, like fruits and seeds, supplementing their insect diet.

Their hunting technique is characterized by rapid, darting movements to catch prey, using both their keen sense of smell and sight. Their agility and speed are crucial for capturing fast-moving or burrowing insects.


Due to their small size, elephant shrews have several natural predators, including birds of prey, snakes, and small carnivorous mammals. Their primary defense mechanism is their speed and agility, allowing them to quickly escape from potential threats.

Elephant shrews are also vigilant and alert, often using vantage points like rocks or logs to scan their surroundings for predators. When threatened, they can produce a loud chirping sound as an alarm to ward off predators and alert other elephant shrews.

Black and rufous elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi)
Black and rufous elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi)

Reproduction and Life Cycle

Elephant shrews are monogamous, with pairs forming strong bonds and often sharing and defending their territory together. Their monogamous nature is relatively unique among small mammals.

After mating, the female undergoes a gestation period of about 1 to 2 months, depending on the species. Elephant shrews have a relatively long gestation period for their size, which results in well-developed offspring.

Typically, a female elephant shrew gives birth to one or two offspring at a time. The young are relatively mature and well-developed at birth, with their eyes open and a full coat of fur. They are able to move around shortly after birth and are weaned within a few weeks. Young elephant shrews reach sexual maturity within a few months.

The reproductive strategy of elephant shrews, characterized by monogamy, territorial cooperation, and relatively developed offspring, reflects their adaptation to a life where agility and territory defense play crucial roles.

Conservation and Threats

The conservation status of elephant shrews varies among species. While many species are classified as Least Concern by the IUCN, some are facing threats that could potentially lead to population declines. Key threats include habitat destruction and fragmentation, primarily due to agricultural expansion, urban development, and deforestation.

Conservation efforts for elephant shrews focus on habitat preservation and protection. This includes maintaining and securing natural habitats, creating protected areas, and promoting practices that minimize human impact on their ecosystems. Research and monitoring are also important to understand population trends and the impacts of environmental changes on different species.

Fun Facts

  1. Speedy Runners: Despite their small size, elephant shrews can run at speeds of up to 18 miles per hour, making them one of the fastest small mammals.
  2. Not Really Shrews: Contrary to their name, elephant shrews are not closely related to shrews. They belong to the order Macroscelidea, which is more closely related to a group that includes manatees and aardvarks.
  3. Long-Distance Communicators: They communicate using scent markings over long distances, which helps in maintaining territories and finding mates.
  4. Impressive Jumpers: Elephant shrews are also capable jumpers, able to leap over obstacles and evade predators effectively.
  5. Unique Snouts: Their elongated noses are extremely flexible and moveable, aiding them in foraging for insects in tight spaces.

Frequently Asked Questions

Where do elephant shrews live?

Elephant shrews are native to Sub-Saharan Africa and are found in a variety of habitats, from forests to dry savannas.

What do elephant shrews eat?

They primarily feed on insects like ants, termites, and beetles, but some species also eat fruits and seeds.

Are elephant shrews endangered?

The conservation status varies by species. While many are not currently endangered, some are facing habitat threats that could impact their populations.

How long do elephant shrews live?

In the wild, elephant shrews typically live for about 2 to 4 years.

Do elephant shrews have predators?

Yes, they are preyed upon by birds of prey, snakes, and small carnivorous mammals.

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