In 1522, Spanish navigators that were exploring Nicaragua thought they had reached the sea when they encountered Lake Nicaragua, referred to as Lago Cocibolca by the locals. When you visit the lake, you’ll understand why Lake Nicaragua was mistaken for the ocean by the Spanish. The lake is vast and massive and already holds the title of the largest lake in Central America. But it’s one thing to read about the lake and a completely different experience to see it in person.
The southwest sector of Lake Nicaragua is dotted with several beautiful islands with the most popular islands being the twin-volcanoed Isla de Ometepe and several islets that make up the Solentiname archipelago. From lush and tranquil atmospheres to beautiful beaches, waterfalls, interesting wildlife, and plenty of opportunities to explore the outdoors, it’s no wonder that travelers spend some time at some of the islands surrounding the famous lake.
If you are anything like me, you’ll be curious about the ecology of Lake Nicaragua which I’m sure you’ll find interesting. Lake Nicaragua is a freshwater lake but the lake contains several saltwater species like tarpon, sawfish, and sharks. More information on this later in the article.
Lake Nicaragua Geography and Facts
Lake Nicaragua is located in the east of the Pacific Lowlands of Southwestern Nicaragua. It is connected to another lake, Lake Managua, by the Tipitapa River and separated from the Pacific Ocean by the Isthmus of Rivas, which is about 20 km wide.
Oval in shape and spanning an impressive 3,149 square miles (8,157 square km), Lake Nicaragua is the largest lake in Central America, the tenth largest lake in the Americas, and 20th largest lake in the world. Lake Nicaragua is about 110 miles (177 km) long and 36 miles (58 km) wide. The lake at its deepest part is about 200 feet (60 metres) deep.
Scientists postulated that Lake Nicaragua and Lake Managua were part of the Pacific Ocean until tectonic activity separated them from the ocean. Fed by several freshwater rivers with the most significant river being the aforementioned Tipitapa River, Lake Nicaragua lost its salinity and became a freshwater lake. The fish trapped in the lake evolved to become some of the most unusual types found anywhere in the world.
Several oceanic animal species are present in Lake Nicaragua making it the only freshwater lake in the world to have saltwater species. And this further strengthens the belief that the lake was part of an ocean bay.
Quick Facts about Lake Nicaragua
- It’s the largest lake in Central America.
- Spanish navigators thought it was the ocean when they encountered it due to its massive size.
- It was likely part of the ocean and separated by tectonic activity.
- It has several islands and islets. Some of the islands are even volcanic.
- Pirates roamed its water until sometime in the 17th century when efforts were made by the authorities to stop them.
What Species of Shark Are There In Lake Nicaragua?
Lake Nicaragua is home to several animal species including reptiles, mammals, and amphibians. The several islands in the lake also have different animal species including monkeys, cats, sea turtles, iguanas, alligators, boa constrictors, and sharks.
The species of shark that live in Lake Nicaragua is the bull shark, one of the most dangerous shark species in the world due to its aggressive tendencies and ability to venture far inland via rivers and tributaries.
Bull sharks are essentially killing machines. They can grow up to 11.5 ft and weigh up to 500 lbs. Their teeth are razor sharp as you’d expect of a shark, needle-shaped, and capable of tearing through animal flesh with ease. Bull sharks aren’t picky about what they eat and they have a very broad diet.
What Is Unusual About Lake Nicaragua’s Sharks?
The sharks that live in Lake Nicaragua were initially thought to be a separate species by scientists. In 1961, shark specimens from the lake were compared with those from other places leading to the discovery that Lake Nicaragua sharks are not a separate species.
Instead, they are the widespread bull sharks known for entering freshwater bodies. Like other bull sharks, Lake Nicaragua shakes have a stocky shape and broad flat snout. They are also very aggressive and may even attack humans unprovoked.
While bull sharks are originally marine animals, they can tolerate and adapt to freshwater. As a result, they are found in rivers and coastlines all over the world. Bull sharks tagged by scientists in Lake Nicaragua have been found in open waters while those tagged in open waters have also been found in Lake Nicaragua.
It was discovered that bull sharks are able to get into Lake Nicaragua by jumping along the rapids of the San Juan River which flows east out of Lake Nicaragua into the Caribbean Sea. The jumping movement of bull sharks is almost similar to the way salmon jump upstream.
In a nutshell, the unusual thing about Lake Nicaragua sharks is that they are actually saltwater sharks that find their way into the Lake. However, they are able to tolerate and even adapt to the freshwater conditions of the lake.
Has There Been Shark Attacks In Lake Nicaragua?
Bull Sharks are fearsome creatures and are considered the most dangerous sharks to humans due to their extreme aggressiveness. However, shark attacks in Lake Nicaragua are very rare with only 3 such attacks documented.
The reason for this is that bull sharks don’t frequent the area where tourists swim. Also, bull sharks are something of an endangered species as their numbers are dwindling due to habitat destruction and the lack of seasonal rains.
What Other Freshwater Lakes Have Sharks?
Bull sharks are not unique to Lake Nicaragua. They are also found in other freshwater bodies all over the world. And as I mentioned earlier, this is because bull sharks are able to adapt to freshwater. Most shark species can’t survive in freshwater because their bodies are full of salt. And if you are familiar with the law of osmosis, water moves from a region of lower solute to a region of higher solute.
This means water will fill the body of most sharks when they are in freshwater eventually rupturing their cells and killing them. The bull shark, however, is not so disadvantaged as their system can flush excess water from their system whenever they are in freshwater bodies.
Bull sharks can also be found in some other lakes and they include:
- Carbrook Golf Club in Queensland, Australia.
- Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela.
- Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana.
- Lake Bayano in Panama.
- Lake Jamoer in New Guinea.
- Lake Sentani in Indonesia.
- Lake Izabal in Guatemala.
Does Lake Nicaragua Have Crocodiles?
Lake Nicaragua has crocodiles. The American crocodile can be found on the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Nicaragua. A substantial crocodile population can be found in the San Juan River and Lake Nicaragua with a small population existing on Ometepe Island.
Crocodile attacks have been known to occur in Lake Nicaragua although fatalities are rare. To be safe, only swim in designated areas that crocodiles are not known to frequent.