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Clouded Leopard: Characteristics, Diet, Facts & More [Fact Sheet]

The clouded leopard, a mysterious and captivating feline, is one of the most enigmatic creatures roaming the forests of Southeast Asia. Known for its strikingly beautiful coat pattern and elusive nature, this medium-sized wild cat has long fascinated wildlife enthusiasts and researchers alike.

In this article, we delve into the world of the clouded leopard, exploring its characteristics, behavior, and the challenges it faces in the wild.

The Clouded Leopard at a Glance


Class:Mammalia (Mammals)
Species:N. nebulosa, N. diardi

Essential Information

Average Size:Length 60-110 cm (23.6-43.3 in), Tail 55-90 cm (21.7-35.4 in)
Average Weight:15-23 kg (33-50.7 lbs)
Average Lifespan:11-17 years in the wild
Geographical Range:Southeast Asia, including parts of China and the Himalayan foothills
Conservation Status:Both species Vulnerable (IUCN Red List)

Species and Subspecies

The clouded leopard is divided into two distinct species:

  • Neofelis nebulosa (Mainland Clouded Leopard): Found in mainland Southeast Asia, from the Himalayan foothills through mainland Southeast Asia into China.
  • Neofelis diardi (Sunda Clouded Leopard): Occupies the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. It was only recognized as a separate species in 2006 due to significant genetic differences from its mainland counterpart.

The key differences lie in their size, with the Sunda clouded leopard being slightly smaller, and in their coat patterns. The Sunda species has smaller and more densely packed cloud-shaped markings compared to the mainland species. Both species, however, share the same arboreal adaptations and elusive nature.

Clouded leopard


Clouded leopards are notable for their distinctive coat pattern, which features irregularly shaped, dark-edged ellipses, resembling clouds, on a pale yellow or gray background. This unique pattern provides excellent camouflage in their forest habitats.

They are medium-sized cats, with a body length ranging from 60 to 110 cm (23.6 to 43.3 inches) and a tail length of 55 to 90 cm (21.7 to 35.4 inches). Their coat is thick and soft, primarily pale yellow or gray, with distinctive cloud-like markings.

One of their most remarkable features is their long canine teeth, relative to skull size, which is comparable to those of the extinct saber-toothed cat. They also possess a robust build, short limbs, and large paws equipped with sharp claws. These adaptations make them adept climbers.

Generally, males are larger and heavier than females, but both sexes share similar coat patterns and coloration.

Habitat and Distribution

Clouded leopards inhabit a range of forest habitats, from dense tropical rainforests to drier deciduous forests, and even in the foothills of the Himalayas.

They are predominantly found in Southeast Asia, including parts of Nepal, India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam.

They are highly arboreal and spend much of their time in trees. Their flexible joints and sharp claws allow them to navigate the forest canopy with ease, and they can even descend headfirst down tree trunks.

Clouded leopard


Clouded leopards are solitary and elusive animals, which makes studying their behavior in the wild challenging.

They are primarily nocturnal but have been observed to be active during the day in areas with little human disturbance. They are solitary, except during mating seasons or when females are raising cubs.

While not much is known about their communication, it is believed that, like other felines, they use vocalizations, scent marking, and body language to communicate.

Their arboreal lifestyle is one of their most distinctive behaviors. They are among the best climbers in the cat family, able to climb on horizontal branches with their back to the ground and even hang from branches using their hind feet.

Diet and Feeding Behavior

Clouded leopards are carnivorous and have a diet that mainly consists of arboreal and terrestrial vertebrates.

They prey on a variety of animals, including monkeys, squirrels, birds, and occasionally small ungulates. They are adept at hunting in the trees but also hunt on the ground.

Their exceptional climbing ability allows them to ambush prey from above. They use their strong jaws and long canine teeth to deliver a fatal bite to the neck or throat of their prey.


As top predators in their habitat, adult clouded leopards have few natural enemies. However, they face threats from other causes. The main threat to young clouded leopards comes from other large predators, including tigers and leopards, which may prey on them.

The more significant threats come from human activities, including habitat loss, poaching for their fur and bones, and hunting for traditional medicine.

Clouded leopard cub

Reproduction and Life Cycle

The reproductive habits of clouded leopards are not well-documented due to their secretive nature, but available information indicates a pattern similar to other felines.

They are believed to be polygynous, with males potentially mating with multiple females. The gestation period lasts about 85 to 93 days. Females typically give birth to a litter of 1 to 5 cubs. The cubs are born blind and initially helpless, relying entirely on their mother.

The female raises the cubs alone, nursing them for several months before introducing them to meat. Cubs are thought to become independent around 10 months of age but may stay with their mother for up to two years.

Conservation and Threats

Clouded leopards face several challenges that impact their survival. The clouded leopard is listed as ‘Vulnerable’ on the IUCN Red List due to declining population trends. Major threats include habitat destruction due to deforestation, poaching for their beautiful fur, and the illegal wildlife trade.

Conservation programs include habitat protection, anti-poaching patrols, and international laws like CITES that regulate or ban the trade of clouded leopard parts. Breeding programs in zoos around the world also play a crucial role in preserving this species.

Fun Facts

  1. Clouded leopards have the largest canine teeth relative to body size of any wild cat.
  2. They can climb upside down and even hang from branches using their hind feet, thanks to their strong back legs and large paws.
  3. Unlike most other cats, clouded leopards can’t roar, but they can make a variety of other sounds like hissing, growling, and moaning.
  4. Their distinctive cloud-patterned coat provides excellent camouflage in their forest habitat.
  5. The clouded leopard is often considered a link between big cats and small cats due to its unique characteristics.

Frequently Asked Questions

What do clouded leopards eat?

Clouded leopards are carnivorous and primarily hunt arboreal and terrestrial vertebrates, including monkeys, squirrels, and birds.

Are clouded leopards dangerous to humans?

While naturally shy and elusive, clouded leopards are wild animals with sharp teeth and claws, so they can be dangerous if threatened or cornered.

How do clouded leopards communicate?

They communicate through vocalizations like growling and moaning, as well as through scent marking and body language.

Where do clouded leopards live?

They inhabit dense forests in Southeast Asia, including the foothills of the Himalayas and parts of China.

Why are clouded leopards endangered?

Their main threats are habitat loss due to deforestation, poaching for their fur, and the illegal wildlife trade.

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