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Eastern Bluebird: Characteristics, Diet, Facts & More [Fact Sheet]

The Eastern Bluebird, a small thrush found in open woodlands and fields across eastern North America, is celebrated for its vivid blue plumage and sweet song. Often seen as a symbol of joy and renewal, these birds have captivated people’s hearts for centuries.

This article provides an insightful glimpse into the life of the Eastern Bluebird, detailing its characteristics, behaviors, and conservation efforts to protect this charming species.

The Eastern Bluebird at a Glance


Class:Aves (Birds)
Species:S. sialis

Essential Information

Average Size:Length: 6.3-8.3 inches (16-21 cm)
Average Weight:1.0-1.1 ounces (28-32 grams)
Average Lifespan:6-10 years in the wild
Geographical Range:Eastern North America, from Canada to the Gulf states, parts of Mexico until Honduras
Conservation Status:Least Concern (IUCN Red List)

Species and Subspecies

The Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) is one of three species in the Sialia genus, the others being the Western Bluebird (Sialia mexicana) and the Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides). While all three share the characteristic blue coloring, they differ in their geographical range and specific habitat preferences.

The Eastern Bluebird is primarily found in the eastern parts of North America and is distinguished by its bright blue plumage and rusty or chestnut throat and breast.

The Western Bluebird has more blue in its plumage and a blue throat, whereas the Mountain Bluebird is almost entirely bright blue. These differences in coloring and distribution are key identifiers for these species.

Eastern Bluebird


The Eastern Bluebird is a small, plump bird with a short tail and a rounded head, giving it a distinctive, endearing appearance. It exhibits striking sexual dimorphism in its plumage.

The males are particularly vibrant, with rich blue feathers on their heads, backs, and wings, and a rusty red color on their throats and breasts. The females are more subdued, with grayish blue on their heads and backs and a paler, buff-colored breast and belly.

Adults typically measure around 6.3-8.3 inches (16-21 cm) in length and weigh approximately 1.0-1.1 ounces (28-32 grams). They have a small, straight black bill and dark eyes. The legs and feet are also black.

Habitat and Distribution

Eastern Bluebirds are found across eastern North America, from southern Canada down through the Gulf states. They prefer open habitats such as meadows, fields, and open woodlands, often near water. They are also commonly seen in suburban gardens, orchards, and along roadsides.

Their preference for open habitats is linked to their feeding habits, as these areas provide ample opportunities to catch insects. They are also known to inhabit areas that have been cleared or altered by humans, which can sometimes provide suitable nesting sites.

Eastern Bluebird


Eastern Bluebirds are social birds, especially outside the breeding season, when they may gather in small flocks. They are diurnal, active during the day, and are often seen perched on wires or fences, scanning the ground for insects.

They communicate through a variety of vocalizations, including warbles, churrs, and soft calls. The males are particularly vocal during the breeding season, singing to attract mates and defend their territory.

These birds are territorial during the breeding season, with males fiercely defending their nesting sites from other males. They are cavity nesters, often using natural tree cavities or old woodpecker holes, and readily take to nest boxes provided by humans. This adaptability has helped them in areas where natural nesting sites are scarce.

Eastern Bluebirds have a gentle and curious nature, which, combined with their tolerance for human presence, has endeared them to many bird watchers and nature enthusiasts. Their presence in a habitat is often indicative of a healthy, insect-rich environment.

Diet and Feeding Behavior

Eastern Bluebirds primarily feed on insects and other invertebrates, including beetles, grasshoppers, spiders, and caterpillars. They are adept hunters, often observed perching on a high vantage point, such as a fence or branch, before swooping down to the ground to catch prey.

During the winter months, when insects are less abundant, their diet shifts to include a variety of wild fruits and berries, providing essential nutrients.

Their hunting method is a mix of watching and waiting, followed by a quick, agile flight to catch prey on the ground. This behavior not only showcases their hunting prowess but also plays a crucial role in controlling insect populations in their habitats.


Eastern Bluebirds face several natural predators, particularly during the breeding season when eggs and nestlings are vulnerable. Common predators include raccoons, snakes, and larger birds such as hawks and crows. Domestic cats also pose a significant threat, especially in suburban areas where the birds might nest near homes.

To protect their nests, Eastern Bluebirds are vigilant and may aggressively confront intruders. Their choice of nesting sites, often in cavities or nest boxes with narrow entrances, provides some defense against larger predators.

Eastern Bluebird

Reproduction and Life Cycle

Eastern Bluebirds are monogamous during the breeding season, with some pairs staying together across seasons. They typically breed between March and July, with some pairs producing two or even three broods per year.

The female is primarily responsible for building the nest, which she constructs using grass, feathers, and other plant material. She lays a clutch of 3 to 6 pale blue eggs, which she incubates for about two weeks. During this time, the male provides food for her.

Once hatched, the chicks are altricial, meaning they are born blind and featherless. Both parents share the responsibility of feeding the chicks a diet rich in insects. The young fledge the nest about three weeks after hatching but may continue to be fed by the parents for another two to three weeks.

Eastern Bluebirds reach sexual maturity by one year of age. Their average lifespan in the wild is around 6-10 years, though survival rates can be impacted by factors such as predation, habitat loss, and climate conditions.

Conservation and Threats

The Eastern Bluebird was once in decline, primarily due to habitat loss and competition for nesting sites with invasive species like the House Sparrow and European Starling.

However, concerted conservation efforts, particularly the widespread installation of bluebird nest boxes, have helped their populations rebound. Today, the Eastern Bluebird is classified as a species of Least Concern by the IUCN Red List.

Conservation initiatives include habitat preservation, monitoring of populations, and public engagement through community-based nest box programs.

Education about the importance of reducing pesticide use also benefits their insect-based diet. These efforts are crucial in ensuring the continued presence of this beloved bird in North America.

Fun Facts

  1. The Eastern Bluebird is the state bird of both New York and Missouri, symbolizing happiness and peace.
  2. Unlike many bird species, Eastern Bluebirds can spot their insect prey from over 60 feet away.
  3. In folklore, the bluebird is often regarded as a symbol of spring, hope, and renewal.
  4. Eastern Bluebirds don’t have a strong song like other birds; instead, they are known for their soft, melodious warbles and calls.
  5. These birds are known for their “flutter-hunting” technique, where they hover in the air before diving down to catch insects.

Frequently Asked Questions

What do Eastern Bluebirds eat?

Eastern Bluebirds primarily eat insects like beetles, grasshoppers, and caterpillars, and supplement their diet with fruits and berries, especially in winter.

How can I attract Eastern Bluebirds to my yard?

You can attract Eastern Bluebirds by installing a nest box in your yard, planting native fruit-bearing plants, and avoiding the use of pesticides.

Do Eastern Bluebirds migrate?

Some northern populations of Eastern Bluebirds may migrate southward in winter, but many individuals in the southern parts of their range are year-round residents.

How many broods do Eastern Bluebirds have each year?

Eastern Bluebirds can have two or three broods per year, especially in regions with longer breeding seasons.

Are Eastern Bluebirds endangered?

No, Eastern Bluebirds are not currently endangered. Conservation efforts, including the provision of nest boxes, have helped stabilize and increase their populations.

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