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Eiders: Characteristics, Diet, Facts & More [Fact Sheet]

Eiders, belonging to the genus Somateria and Polysticta, are large sea ducks renowned for their resilience and adaptability in cold northern climates.

Famous for their luxurious down, which is used by humans for insulation, eiders are a captivating subject in both wildlife study and cultural history.

This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of eiders, exploring their classification, habitats, behavior, and conservation status, shedding light on these fascinating birds that grace the northern waters.

Eiders at a Glance


Class:Aves (Birds)
Genus:Somateria and Polysticta
Species:Multiple, including Somateria mollissima (Common Eider) and others

Essential Information

Average Size:20-28 inches (50-71 cm) in length
Average Weight:2.2-6.6 pounds (1-3 kg)
Average Lifespan:8-10 years in the wild
Geographical Range:Northern coasts of Europe, North America, and Eastern Siberia
Conservation Status:Least Concern to Vulnerable depending on the species (IUCN Red List)

Species and Subspecies

Eiders are divided into several species, with the most well-known being the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima). Other notable species include the King Eider (Somateria spectabilis), the Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri), and the Steller’s Eider (Polysticta stelleri).

Each species has unique characteristics:

  • The Common Eider is the largest and most widespread, known for its bulky shape and varying plumage based on sex and season.
  • The King Eider is notable for its striking appearance, especially the males with their bright colors and distinctive head shape.
  • The Spectacled Eider, as its name suggests, has conspicuous white patches around its eyes.
  • The Steller’s Eider, the smallest of the group, has a unique, intricate plumage pattern.

These species inhabit different ranges within the Northern Hemisphere and exhibit variations in their migratory patterns, feeding habits, and nesting behaviors, reflecting their adaptation to the specific conditions of their habitats.

Common eider
Common eider (male)


Eiders are characterized by their large, heavy bodies and distinctive plumage. The males, especially during the breeding season, exhibit bright and varied colors.

For example, Common Eider males have a striking black and white pattern with a green nape, while King Eiders display a combination of blue, orange, and green with a red bill. Females are generally more subdued in color, usually brown and heavily barred, which provides excellent camouflage on the nesting grounds.

These sea ducks have a flat, wide bill adapted for their diet and a dense layer of insulating feathers, making them well-suited to cold environments. They also possess a substantial layer of fat, providing buoyancy and further insulation.

Sexual dimorphism is pronounced in eiders, with males being more colorful and slightly larger than females. This difference is most noticeable during the breeding season when males display their vibrant breeding plumage.

Habitat and Distribution

Eiders inhabit cold coastal waters of the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly found along the northern coasts of Europe, North America, and Eastern Siberia. Their preferred habitats include shallow marine environments, particularly where there is an abundance of their primary food source.

These birds are also known for their seasonal migrations, moving to open waters or southward to avoid the harshest winter conditions. Some populations, however, remain in their breeding areas year-round if the conditions are favorable.

Common eider (female)
Common eider (female)


Eiders are primarily diurnal, spending the majority of their time foraging in the water. They are excellent divers, often diving to considerable depths to feed.

Outside the breeding season, eiders are highly social and can be found in large flocks on the water. These aggregations provide safety in numbers from predators. During the breeding season, however, they become more territorial and solitary, with females nesting and raising their young alone.

Eiders communicate through a range of vocalizations. Males typically have a more complex series of calls used during courtship and to establish dominance, while females use simpler calls, often associated with nesting and signaling to their young.

Eiders exhibit fascinating behaviors that are closely tied to the harsh environments they inhabit. Their social dynamics, communication, and feeding habits all play crucial roles in their survival in these challenging ecosystems.

Diet and Feeding Behavior

Eiders primarily feed on a diet of aquatic invertebrates. This includes mollusks, crustaceans, sea urchins, and various types of shellfish, which they often dive to the ocean floor to retrieve. Their strong, specialized bills are adept at prying open shellfish, a primary component of their diet.

These birds are known for their impressive diving ability. They can dive to considerable depths and stay submerged as they forage for food on the seabed. This skill is essential for surviving in the often food-scarce Arctic waters.


Eider ducks, especially their eggs and ducklings, face predation from a variety of sources. Common predators include large gulls, ravens, foxes, and minks. In some areas, polar bears and large fish may also prey on eiders, particularly the young or injured birds.

Adult eiders, with their robust size and strong flying ability, have fewer natural predators. However, they can still fall victim to large birds of prey and human activities, such as hunting and oil spills, which pose significant risks.

Spectacled eider
Spectacled eider

Reproduction and Life Cycle

Eiders are generally monogamous during the breeding season, with pairs forming each year. The breeding season begins in late spring or early summer, depending on the latitude of their location.

As birds, eiders do not have a gestation period. Instead, they have an incubation period for their eggs. After mating, the female lays a clutch of 3 to 6 eggs in a nest built on the ground, often hidden among vegetation or rocks near the shoreline.

The eggs are incubated by the female alone for about 25 to 30 days. Eider ducklings are precocial, meaning they are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of hatching.

The mother leads them to water shortly after hatching, where they begin feeding themselves. Despite their early independence, ducklings remain with their mother for several weeks for protection and guidance.

The reproductive strategy of eiders, with their precocial young and solitary nesting habits, is a fascinating aspect of their adaptation to the harsh and predator-rich environments of the northern coasts.

Conservation and Threats

The conservation status of eider species varies. While some populations are stable, others, like the Steller’s Eider, are listed as Vulnerable due to declining numbers.

Major threats to eiders include habitat loss, oil spills, pollution, and overfishing, which depletes their food sources. Climate change also poses a significant threat by altering their Arctic and sub-Arctic habitats.

Conservation efforts for eiders include habitat protection, pollution control, and sustainable fishing practices. In some regions, specific programs aim to protect nesting areas from predators and human disturbance. International cooperation is vital for the conservation of migratory species like eiders, as they traverse various countries and continents.

Fun Facts

  1. Eider Down: Eider down, the soft feathers of these ducks, is highly prized for its insulating properties and is one of the warmest and lightest natural insulating materials.
  2. Expert Divers: Eiders can dive to depths of over 65 feet in search of food, showcasing their remarkable adaptation to marine life.
  3. Long-Distance Migrants: Some eider species undertake extensive migratory journeys, traveling thousands of miles between their breeding and wintering grounds.
  4. Cultural Significance: Eiders have a rich cultural history, particularly among indigenous peoples of the Arctic, who have utilized their feathers and meat for centuries.
  5. Unique Nesting: Female eiders line their nests with their own down, plucking it from their breasts, which not only insulates the eggs but also camouflages the nest.

Frequently Asked Questions

How can you differentiate male and female eiders?

Males typically have bright and distinctive plumage, especially during the breeding season, while females are more camouflaged with brown and barred patterns.

Where do eiders live?

Eiders inhabit northern coastal regions, particularly in the Arctic and sub-Arctic areas of Europe, North America, and Eastern Siberia.

What is the lifespan of an eider?

In the wild, eiders can live for about 8 to 10 years, though this can vary based on environmental conditions and threats.

Are eiders endangered?

The conservation status varies by species and location. Some, like the Steller’s Eider, are considered Vulnerable, while others have more stable populations.

Do eiders migrate?

Yes, many eider species migrate seasonally, moving to more temperate coastal waters during the winter.

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