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Eleonora’s Falcon: Characteristics, Diet, Facts & More [Fact Sheet]

Eleonora’s Falcon, named after the Sardinian judge Eleonora of Arborea, is a medium-sized bird of prey known for its remarkable hunting skills and distinctive migration patterns.

This falcon, scientific name Falco eleonorae, is a symbol of agility and grace in the avian world. This article aims to explore the fascinating world of Eleonora’s Falcon, shedding light on its lifestyle, behavior, and the challenges it faces in the wild.

Eleonora’s Falcon at a Glance


Class:Aves (Birds)
Species:F. eleonorae

Essential Information

Average Size:Length: 14-17 inches (36-43 cm); Wingspan: 35-40 inches (90-105 cm)
Average Weight:9.5-17.6 ounces (270-500 grams)
Average Lifespan:Up to 20 years in the wild
Geographical Range:Breeding mainly in the Mediterranean; migrating to Madagascar and eastern Africa
Conservation Status:Least Concern (IUCN Red List)

Species and Subspecies

Eleonora’s Falcon is a monotypic species, meaning it does not have recognized subspecies. However, there are two distinct color morphs within the species:

  • The dark morph, which has an almost uniformly dark brown plumage.
  • The pale morph, which features a lighter, more contrasting coloration with a dark streaked underside.

These color variations do not indicate any subspecies differentiation, but rather a natural color polymorphism within the species. Both morphs share the same range and habitat and are found breeding and hunting in the same regions. Despite their different appearances, they exhibit similar behaviors and ecological roles.

Eleonora's Falcon femaleSource: Wikimedia Commons


Eleonora’s Falcons are slender, medium-sized birds of prey with long, pointed wings and a long tail, features that contribute to their exceptional flying abilities.

The coloration varies between individuals, ranging from the dark morph with a uniformly sooty brown appearance to the pale morph which displays a lighter color with dark streaks, particularly on the underside.

Their beaks are hooked, typical of raptors, and they have sharp talons, both adaptations for hunting. They have keen eyesight, a characteristic essential for spotting prey from high altitudes.

There is minimal sexual dimorphism in Eleonora’s Falcons. Both males and females generally look similar in size and coloration, making it challenging to distinguish between the sexes based on appearance alone.

Habitat and Distribution

Eleonora’s Falcons are predominantly found in the Mediterranean region, especially on islands and coastal areas. They prefer rocky coastlines and islands with cliffs for nesting. These locations provide ideal vantage points for hunting and relative safety from ground predators.

Remarkably, these falcons migrate a considerable distance to spend the winter in Madagascar and the eastern coasts of Africa. This migration is closely tied to their unique breeding season and feeding habits.

Eleonora's FalconSource: Wikimedia Commons


Eleonora’s Falcons are diurnal and are most active during daylight hours. They are highly skilled fliers, known for their agility and speed, particularly when hunting.

These falcons are relatively social compared to other raptor species, especially during the breeding season when they form loose colonies on cliffs. Outside the breeding season, they can often be seen in small groups during migration.

Communication among Eleonora’s Falcons involves vocalizations and physical displays. Their calls are typically high-pitched and are used for signaling alarm, attracting mates, or communicating within the colony. They also use body language, such as posturing and aerial displays, during courtship and territorial disputes.

The behavior of Eleonora’s Falcons, from their social nesting habits to their long migratory journeys, reflects their adaptation to a life spent predominantly in the air, mastering the art of aerial hunting and long-distance travel.

Diet and Feeding Behavior

Eleonora’s Falcons are specialized hunters, primarily feeding on small birds. Their diet mainly consists of migratory birds that they catch in flight during the migration season.

This unique feeding habit is closely linked to their late breeding season, timed to coincide with the autumn migration of small birds across the Mediterranean.

Their hunting technique is a testament to their agility and speed in the air. Eleonora’s Falcons often hunt in groups, using coordinated flying maneuvers to tire out their prey before capturing them. They are also known to catch insects and, occasionally, small mammals or reptiles.


As skilled aerial predators, adult Eleonora’s Falcons have few natural enemies. However, their eggs and nestlings are vulnerable to predation by other birds such as large gulls, crows, and occasionally, other birds of prey. On some islands, introduced mammals like rats and cats can also pose a significant threat to their nests.

The falcons’ nesting sites on steep cliffs and remote islands offer some protection from these predators, but they cannot entirely eliminate the risk, especially in areas where human activity has introduced new predatory species.

Eleonora's FalconSource: Wikimedia Commons

Reproduction and Life Cycle

Eleonora’s Falcons have a unique breeding cycle that is later than most birds, starting in late summer and extending into autumn. This timing ensures that the hatching of their chicks coincides with the peak of the autumn bird migration, providing ample food supply for the growing young.

After laying, the eggs are incubated for about 28 to 30 days. Typically, a female Eleonora’s Falcon will lay 2 to 4 eggs. Both parents are involved in the care of the young, with the male often responsible for providing food while the female tends to the nestlings. The chicks fledge about 40 to 45 days after hatching but may remain dependent on the parents for some time thereafter.

The reproduction and life cycle of Eleonora’s Falcons, particularly their synchronization with the seasonal migration of prey species, is a fascinating example of ecological adaptation. Their breeding strategy not only ensures a plentiful food source for their chicks but also highlights the interconnectedness of migratory patterns in the natural world.

Conservation and Threats

The conservation status of Eleonora’s Falcon is currently listed as “Least Concern” by the IUCN Red List. However, they face several threats that could impact their populations.

Key threats include habitat loss, disturbance at nesting sites, and the impact of introduced predators on islands where they breed. Additionally, changes in migratory patterns of small birds, due to climate change or habitat alterations along migration routes, could affect their food availability.

Conservation efforts for Eleonora’s Falcon include protecting nesting sites, controlling introduced predators on breeding islands, and monitoring population trends. Conservationists also focus on maintaining the integrity of migration routes for the small birds they prey upon, which is crucial for the falcons’ feeding strategy.

Fun Facts

  1. Late Breeders: Eleonora’s Falcons are among the latest breeding of all birds in the Northern Hemisphere, timing their breeding season to coincide with the autumn migration of small birds.
  2. Aerial Acrobats: These falcons are known for their incredible flying skills, able to catch small birds in mid-air with remarkable agility and speed.
  3. Named After a Noblewoman: The species is named after Eleonora of Arborea, a national heroine of Sardinia, who implemented laws to protect nesting hawks and falcons in the 14th century.
  4. Group Hunters: Unlike many raptors that hunt solo, Eleonora’s Falcons often hunt in groups to strategically tire out their prey, showcasing a unique form of cooperation.
  5. Island Dwellers: They prefer to nest on isolated islands and coastal cliffs, providing them with safe breeding grounds away from many mainland predators.

Frequently Asked Questions

Where can Eleonora’s Falcons be found?

They breed on islands and coastal cliffs in the Mediterranean and migrate to eastern Africa and Madagascar for the winter.

What do Eleonora’s Falcons eat?

Their diet primarily consists of small migratory birds, which they catch in flight.

How can you identify Eleonora’s Falcon?

They have long, narrow wings, a long tail, and come in two color morphs – dark and pale. Their agile flight is also a key identifier.

Are Eleonora’s Falcons endangered?

They are currently listed as “Least Concern,” but they face threats that could impact their populations in the future.

Do Eleonora’s Falcons live in colonies?

Yes, they are relatively social for raptors and often form loose colonies during the breeding season.

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