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African Grey Parrot: Characteristics, Diet, Facts & More [Fact Sheet]

The African grey parrot, known scientifically as Psittacus erithacus, is one of the most intelligent birds in the world. Renowned for their advanced problem-solving skills and remarkable ability to mimic human speech, these birds are a wonder of the avian world.

These parrots are not only intelligent but also deeply social, and their survival in the wild requires a delicate balance of environmental factors.

This guide provides an in-depth look at the African grey parrot, exploring its behavior, diet, and the various challenges this species faces in the wild.

The African Grey Parrot at a Glance


Class:Aves (Birds)
Species:P. erithacus

Essential Information

Average Size:13 inches (33 cm)
Average Weight:0.88 – 1.1 lbs (400 – 490 grams)
Average Lifespan:40 – 60 years in the wild, longer in captivity
Geographical Range:West and Central Africa
Conservation Status:Endangered (IUCN Red List)

Species and Subspecies

The African grey parrot species used to be subdivided into two major subspecies: the Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and the Timneh African grey parrot (formerly Psittacus erithacus timneh).

The Congo African grey parrot is larger and has a bright red tail, while the Timneh African grey parrot is smaller with a darker, maroon tail.

Their distribution ranges also differ, with the Congo African grey found in the rainforests of West and Central Africa, while the Timneh African grey inhabiting the western parts of the Ivory Coast and Guinea.

Nowadays, the Timneh Parrot is considered a separate species, Psittacus timneh.

African Grey Parrot face


African grey parrots are medium-sized birds, usually around 13 inches in length. They are predominantly grey, with striking red or maroon tails depending on the subspecies. The bird’s beak is black, and its eyes are pale yellow. These parrots are known for their intelligence and expressive faces, with an ability to show a wide range of emotions.

There’s no visible sexual dimorphism in African grey parrots, meaning males and females look virtually identical. However, mature males typically have a slightly flatter and broader head shape and a larger beak than females. The surest way to determine the sex of an African grey parrot is through DNA testing or a surgical sexing procedure.

Habitat and Distribution

African grey parrots are native to the rainforests of West and Central Africa. They can also be found in mangroves and savannah woodland. Their range extends from the Ivory Coast and Ghana in the west to Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of Congo in the east.

In their natural habitats, these parrots typically live in large flocks and prefer areas near water bodies, where they can find an abundance of food.

Unfortunately, habitat loss due to deforestation and the illegal pet trade are significant threats, causing a considerable decline in their wild populations.

Two African grey parrots cuddling


African grey parrots are social creatures, typically living in groups that can number from a few pairs to flocks of several hundred birds. They are diurnal, meaning they are active during the day and sleep at night. The morning and evening are peak activity times when they fly out in search of food and water.

When it comes to communication, African grey parrots are unsurpassed in the avian world. They are renowned for their exceptional ability to mimic a wide range of sounds, including human speech, with astonishing accuracy.

In the wild, their vocalizations include squawks, shrieks, and whistles, used for various purposes, such as alerting the group to danger or strengthening social bonds.

Diet and Feeding Behavior

African grey parrots are primarily herbivores, with a diet that includes a variety of fruits, nuts, and seeds. They also eat leaves, bark, and blossoms, and occasionally, they may consume small amounts of insects and snails.

These parrots usually feed in the early morning and late afternoon. They show a preference for oil palm fruits and are also known to frequent clay licks to consume soil – a behavior believed to neutralize toxins in their diet and provide essential minerals.


The natural predators of African grey parrots include palm-nut vultures and large snakes. Birds of prey, such as hawks and eagles, also pose a threat, especially to young parrots and eggs.

However, the most significant threat to African grey parrots comes from humans, who capture them for the pet trade or hunt them for meat and feathers. These anthropogenic threats, combined with habitat loss, are causing serious declines in their wild populations.

African Grey Parrot in an aviarySource: heights.18145 / Flickr

Reproduction and Life Cycle

African grey parrots reach sexual maturity around the age of 4 to 5 years. They are monogamous birds, forming lifelong breeding pairs. Breeding usually occurs during the dry season. The female lays 2 to 3 eggs in a tree cavity, which she incubates for about 30 days while the male brings her food.

Once hatched, the chicks are altricial (born without feathers and with eyes closed). They are cared for by both parents and stay in the nest for about 12 weeks until they are ready to fledge. Parental care continues for several months afterward until the young parrots are fully independent.

Conservation and Threats

The IUCN Red List classifies the African grey parrot as Endangered. The species faces significant threats due to habitat loss from deforestation and rampant illegal capture for the pet trade. It’s estimated that up to 21% of the global population is harvested every year.

Conservation efforts are underway to protect and preserve this remarkable species. These include habitat protection, strengthening law enforcement to combat the illegal pet trade, and raising public awareness about the species’ plight.

Some projects also focus on breeding and reintroduction programs. Supporting these initiatives is crucial for the survival of African grey parrots.

Fun Facts

  1. Incredible intelligence: African grey parrots are considered one of the most intelligent bird species. They have a cognitive ability comparable to a human toddler.
  2. Language masters: Their talent for mimicry is unmatched. Some individuals have been known to learn hundreds of words and sounds.
  3. Tools: African greys have been recorded using tools, demonstrating problem-solving abilities usually associated with primates.
  4. Amazing lifespan: They can live for up to 60 years in the wild, and some captive birds have been known to reach an age of 80 years.

Frequently Asked Questions

How long do African grey parrots live?

African grey parrots can live up to 60 years in the wild. In captivity, where they are safe from predators and have a consistent food supply, they can live up to 80 years.

How intelligent are African grey parrots?

African grey parrots are known for their high intelligence, with cognitive abilities comparable to a human toddler. They can learn and mimic hundreds of words and sounds, solve problems, and even use tools.

Are African grey parrots endangered?

Yes, the African grey parrot is classified as Endangered by the IUCN Red List. Their population is declining due to habitat loss and illegal capture for the pet trade.

What do African grey parrots eat?

African grey parrots are primarily herbivores. Their diet in the wild consists of fruits, nuts, seeds, leaves, and bark. Occasionally, they also consume small amounts of insects and snails.

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