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Barn Owl: Characteristics, Diet, Facts & More [Fact Sheet]

Mysterious, haunting, and eerily beautiful, the barn owl is a sight to behold as it floats silently over fields and meadows in search of prey. With a heart-shaped face, pale feathers, and dark eyes, this nocturnal raptor has captured the imagination of many cultures throughout history, often being associated with omens and folklore.

Found almost everywhere across the globe, the barn owl plays a crucial role in controlling pest populations. This article delves into the world of the barn owl, offering a comprehensive look at its life, behavior, and significance in the natural world.

The Barn Owl at a Glance


Class:Aves (Birds)
Species:T. alba

Essential Information

Average Size:13–15 inches (33–38 cm) in length
Average wingspan:Males: 0.9–1.0 lbs (410-470g), Females: 1.0–1.2 lbs (460–530g)
Average Weight:Males: 7-10 lbs (3-4.5 kg), Females: 10-14 lbs (4.5-6.5 kg)
Average Lifespan:In the wild: 2-5 years, In captivity: up to 20 years
Geographical Range:Almost worldwide, except polar and desert regions
Conservation Status:Least Concern (IUCN Red List)

Species and Subspecies

While the term “barn owl” commonly refers to the species Tyto alba, the genus Tyto actually consists of around 16 different species. Tyto alba, also known as the common barn owl, has the widest distribution and is the species most people are familiar with. Apart from the common barn owl, other notable species include the grass owl (Tyto capensis) and the greater sooty owl (Tyto tenebricosa).

Within Tyto alba itself, there are numerous subspecies that vary slightly in size, color, and habitat preference. Some of these subspecies include:

  • Tyto alba alba: Found in Europe to western Russia, this subspecies is paler and often has a pure white underbelly.
  • Tyto alba guttata: Occurs in central and eastern Europe, it generally has a darker plumage and is smaller.
  • Tyto alba pratincola: Native to the Americas, this subspecies has a more pronounced rusty hue on its upperparts.

Key differences among the subspecies generally relate to their coloration and size, which often reflect the specific environments they inhabit.

Barn Owl


Barn owls are unmistakable with their heart-shaped facial discs, which serve to channel sound to their ears, granting them exceptional hearing. The common barn owl, Tyto alba, has a wingspan ranging from 27 to 43 inches (68 to 110 cm) and a body length between 13 to 15 inches (33 to 38 cm).

Their overall coloration can vary based on the subspecies, but generally, barn owls possess a mix of buff, yellow, and tawny on their upperparts with a pure white or spotted underbelly.

Sexual dimorphism is subtle but present in barn owls. Typically, females are slightly larger than males and often have more spots on their underside. Additionally, the female’s coloration might be slightly darker and more densely patterned compared to the males. This difference in plumage may help in camouflaging females when they are nesting.

Their large, dark eyes are adapted for excellent night vision, but unlike many other owl species, barn owl eyes are not reflective, which means they don’t “glow” in torchlight or car headlights. This distinctive appearance, combined with their silent flight and eerie screeching calls, contributes to the various myths and legends surrounding these magnificent birds.

Habitat and Distribution

Barn owls are among the most widely distributed birds in the world, found on every continent except Antarctica. Their range spans from Europe, Africa, and much of Asia to the Americas and parts of Australia. Notably adaptable, barn owls inhabit a variety of environments, from rural farmlands and grasslands to marshes, deserts, and forests.

They particularly favor open landscapes where they can easily hunt for prey. As their name suggests, barn owls often roost in old barns, church steeples, and other man-made structures, making them one of the few wild animals that thrive in close proximity to humans.

Barn Owl


  • General Behavior: Barn owls are primarily nocturnal, relying on their keen senses of hearing and sight to locate prey under the cover of darkness. Their silent flight, enabled by specially designed wing and feather features, allows them to stealthily approach prey without detection.
  • Social Structure: While they tend to be solitary hunters, barn owls are monogamous and often form long-lasting pairs. The bond between mating pairs is strong, with both partners sharing the responsibility of raising their offspring.
  • Communication: Vocal communication is essential for barn owls. Their calls can vary from the typical eerie screeches—often associated with bad omens in folklore—to softer contact calls exchanged between mates or a mother and her chicks. In addition to vocal communication, body postures play a role, especially during courtship and territorial disputes.
  • Hunting and Flight: One particularly fascinating aspect of barn owl behavior is their hunting technique. Using their acute sense of hearing, they can pinpoint the exact location of prey (like small rodents) in complete darkness or under thick vegetation. When a sound is located, the owl will hover momentarily before making a swift and precise dive toward its target.

The barn owl’s association with human structures and its adaptability to changing landscapes make it a remarkable species in the avian world. Their beneficial role in controlling pest populations, such as rodents, in farmlands also adds to their importance in many ecosystems.

Diet and Feeding/Hunting Behavior

Barn owls are carnivorous birds, specializing primarily in hunting small mammals. The majority of their diet consists of rodents such as mice, rats, and voles. They also occasionally feed on birds, bats, and insects when the opportunity arises.

Hunting primarily at night, barn owls possess an extraordinary sense of hearing, which allows them to detect the faintest sounds made by their prey. This, combined with their ability to fly silently, makes them formidable hunters.

When hunting, they often use a perch-and-wait strategy, sitting patiently until they detect a sound, at which point they take to the air, using their keen hearing and eyesight to pinpoint their target.

Their heart-shaped facial disc helps funnel sound to their ears, enabling precise triangulation of the source. Once they’ve locked onto their prey, they swoop down swiftly, catching it with their sharp talons. Barn owls have a rapid digestion process, often regurgitating indigestible parts, like bones and fur, as pellets.


While barn owls are skilled hunters, they are not exempt from predation themselves. Their natural predators include larger birds of prey such as eagles, hawks, and other larger owls.

Young barn owls, especially those that have just fledged and are still learning to fly, are particularly vulnerable and can fall prey to animals like raccoons, large snakes, and even some larger mammals if they are on the ground.

Nestlings can also be at risk from climbing predators that can access their often lofty nesting sites. To counter these threats, barn owls are known to use a defensive hissing sound, sometimes called the “snake hiss”, which can deter potential predators by mimicking the sound of an angered snake.

Barn Owl

Reproduction and Life Cycle

Barn owls exhibit strong site fidelity, often returning to the same nesting location year after year. They don’t build traditional nests; instead, they often use natural sites like tree hollows, barn lofts, or other man-made structures. Sometimes, they might take over the old nests of other birds or simply lay eggs on a bare surface.

Breeding habits can vary based on the region, but typically, barn owls are monogamous and will pair for life. Courtship consists of mutual preening, screeching calls, and aerial displays by the male.

There isn’t a gestation period for birds as they lay eggs rather than giving live birth. After mating, the female lays a clutch of about 3 to 6 eggs, though it can be more in abundant years. She lays them at 2-3 day intervals, which leads to a size hierarchy within the brood. The female incubates the eggs, which hatch in about 30 days. During this time, the male provides food for the female.

Once hatched, the owlets are altricial, meaning they are blind, featherless, and entirely dependent on their parents. The female stays with the young most of the time during the early days, keeping them warm, while the male brings food.

As they grow, both parents hunt to meet the increasing food demand. After about 50 to 55 days, the young owls are ready to fledge, though they still depend on their parents for food for several weeks afterward.

Conservation and Threats

The barn owl is currently listed as “Least Concern” on the IUCN Red List, indicating that they are not immediately threatened with extinction. However, in some regions, their numbers have been in decline due to various factors.

One of the primary threats faced by barn owls is habitat loss. As old barns are torn down or converted and open fields are developed or farmed more intensively, barn owls lose crucial hunting and nesting grounds. Pesticide use also poses a threat, as it reduces the number of available prey and can lead to secondary poisoning if owls consume poisoned rodents.

Conservation efforts for barn owls have focused on habitat preservation and restoration. Many programs encourage the installation of nest boxes in areas where natural nesting sites are limited.

Educational initiatives also play a role, teaching farmers and the general public about the benefits of barn owls in natural rodent control and the dangers of pesticide use. Some regions have also established protected areas to ensure the survival of local barn owl populations.

Fun Facts

  1. Ghostly Hunter: The barn owl’s silent flight is no accident. Their wing and feather design reduce turbulence and allow them to hunt quietly, earning them nicknames like “ghost owl.”
  2. Impressive Appetite: A single barn owl family, with two adults and six owlets, can eat over 1,000 mice during a three-month nesting period.
  3. Unique Face: The barn owl’s heart-shaped face, or facial disc, acts like a satellite dish, funneling sound to their ears. This feature aids them in pinpointing the exact location of their prey even in complete darkness.
  4. Cosmopolitan Birds: Barn owls are one of the most widespread of all land birds. They’re found on every continent except Antarctica.
  5. Voice, Not Hoot: Unlike many owls who hoot, barn owls produce a screechy scream. Each owl’s scream is unique and can be used to identify individuals.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why are they called “barn” owls?

Barn owls are often found in rural areas and take up residence in old, often unused barns. These structures provide shelter and a vantage point for hunting, making them ideal for these owls.

Do barn owls mate for life?

Yes, barn owls are typically monogamous and often form long-term pair bonds, staying with the same mate for life unless one of the pair dies.

Why do barn owls have a heart-shaped face?

Their distinct heart-shaped facial disc acts like a sound funnel, directing sounds to their asymmetrically placed ears, allowing them to pinpoint the exact location of prey with incredible accuracy.

Are barn owls good for pest control?

Absolutely! Barn owls are natural rodent predators. A single barn owl can consume up to 3-4 mice a night, making them a natural form of pest control for farmers.

How can I attract barn owls to my property?

Providing a suitable nesting site, like an owl box, can attract barn owls. Ensure the environment is safe, with minimal human disturbance and a steady supply of prey. Also, reducing or eliminating the use of pesticides can make an area more owl-friendly.

Can barn owls see in the dark?

While barn owls have excellent night vision, it’s their acute sense of hearing that’s most impressive. They can hunt in complete darkness, relying solely on their hearing to locate prey.

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