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Emu: Characteristics, Diet, Facts & More [Fact Sheet]

The Emu, a symbol of Australia’s unique wildlife, stands as the second-largest living bird by height, surpassed only by its African relative, the ostrich. Known for their distinctive appearance and remarkable adaptability, emus are an integral part of Australia’s natural heritage.

This article explores the fascinating world of the emu, from its evolutionary history to its behavior, diet, and conservation status. As we delve into the life of this majestic bird, we uncover the secrets behind its survival in diverse and often harsh Australian landscapes.

The Emu at a Glance


Class:Aves (Birds)
Species:D. novaehollandiae

Essential Information

Average Size:Height: 5.7-6.2 feet (1.75-1.9 meters)
Average Weight:66-100 pounds (30-45 kilograms)
Average Lifespan:Up to 20 years in the wild, longer in captivity
Geographical Range:Mainland Australia
Conservation Status:Least Concern (IUCN Red List)

Species and Subspecies

The Emu is classified under a single species, Dromaius novaehollandiae, with three subspecies that were recognized based on their geographic distribution:

  1. Dromaius novaehollandiae novaehollandiae: The most common subspecies, found throughout mainland Australia.
  2. Dromaius novaehollandiae woodwardi: From the northern regions of Australia, distinguished by its slightly smaller size, but not always recognized as an official subspecies.
  3. Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis: Previously found in Tasmania, this subspecies is now extinct.

These subspecies exhibited minor variations in size and coloration, adapted to different environmental conditions across Australia. However, the mainland subspecies remains widespread and is the representative image of the emu known today.



Emus are notable for their large size and unique physical characteristics. They stand about 5.7 to 6.2 feet (1.75 to 1.9 meters) tall and weigh between 66 to 100 pounds (30 to 45 kilograms).

Their body is covered in soft, fluffy feathers that range in color from grey to brown, providing effective insulation against the temperature extremes of their habitat. The feathers also help in camouflaging them in the bushland.

These flightless birds have long, powerful legs adapted for running at high speeds, capable of reaching up to 30 mph (48 km/h). They have small wings, which are not used for flying but may play a role in temperature regulation and, in males, during courtship displays. Emus have a long neck, a small head, and large, bright eyes that are adapted for good vision.

Sexual dimorphism in emus is minimal, but females are generally slightly larger than males and can be identified by their slightly deeper vocalizations. Another distinct feature of the emu is its three-toed feet, equipped with strong claws, which are used for scratching the ground for food and as a defense mechanism.

Habitat and Distribution

Emus are native to Australia and are found in a range of habitats across the mainland, from coastal regions to arid inland areas. They are highly adaptable and can live in various environments, including forests, savannas, grasslands, and desert areas. Their distribution is widespread, but they tend to avoid densely populated areas, dense forests, and arid deserts.

The adaptability of emus to different habitats is a key factor in their survival across the diverse Australian landscape. Their ability to travel long distances and consume a wide variety of food sources allows them to thrive in environments that vary from season to season.



Emus are diurnal birds, most active during the cooler parts of the day. They are known for their curious and investigative nature, often approaching humans and other animals with inquisitive behavior.

Socially, emus are generally solitary but may form loose flocks, especially when food is abundant. These flocks are not highly structured and tend to be temporary. Emus are also known to undertake seasonal migrations, walking long distances to find food and water.

Communication among emus is primarily through vocalizations, including grunts, drumming, and hissing sounds. These sounds play a role in mating rituals, expressing distress, and establishing social hierarchy within groups.

Emus are also known for their distinctive dancing, which includes jumping and fluffing up their feathers. This behavior is more common in young emus and is thought to be a form of play and exploration, as well as a way to strengthen their muscles and coordination.

Diet and Feeding Behavior

Emus are omnivores with a diet that varies based on their habitat and the availability of food. They primarily feed on a variety of plants, including leaves, flowers, seeds, and fruits.

They also eat insects, especially during the breeding season when their protein needs are higher. In arid environments, they may consume stones and pebbles to aid in grinding up plant material in their digestive system.

Emus forage throughout the day, walking long distances to find food. They use their strong legs and sharp claws to dig into the soil for edible roots and to uncover insects. Their ability to consume a wide range of food items helps them to survive in different environments and under varying conditions.


Adult emus have few natural predators due to their large size, speed, and powerful defensive kicks. However, their eggs and young are vulnerable to predators such as dingoes, eagles, and various reptiles. The birds use camouflage and their swift running ability to escape predators, and they can deliver powerful kicks as a means of defense.

The nesting behavior of emus also helps protect the eggs and young. Males incubate the eggs and are fiercely protective, using camouflage and aggression to defend the nest from potential threats.

Emu and chicks

Reproduction and Life Cycle

Emus have a unique breeding pattern, with the breeding season typically occurring in the cooler months. The female lays eggs in a simple nest on the ground, and the male then takes over the incubation duties, sitting on the eggs for about eight weeks without eating, drinking, or defecating.

The eggs of the emu are large, dark green, and thick-shelled. A typical clutch contains 5 to 15 eggs, but this can vary. Once hatched, the male continues to care for the chicks for up to 18 months, teaching them how to find food and protecting them from predators. The chicks are precocial and can leave the nest within a few days of hatching.

Emus reach sexual maturity at about two to three years of age. The life expectancy of an emu in the wild is typically around 10 to 20 years, but this can be longer in captivity under optimal conditions. The role of the male in parenting is one of the most notable aspects of the emu’s reproductive behavior, showcasing a fascinating example of paternal care in the bird world.

Conservation and Threats

The Emu is currently classified as “Least Concern” by the IUCN Red List. Its population is stable and widespread across mainland Australia. Despite facing habitat loss in some areas due to agricultural expansion and urban development, emus have shown remarkable adaptability to changing environments.

Conservation efforts for emus are focused on habitat protection and management, ensuring that their natural environments are preserved and that the birds have access to sufficient food and water sources. In addition, emus are protected under Australian law, which helps to control hunting and manage any potential threats to their population.

Fun Facts

  1. Impressive Runners: Emus can reach speeds of up to 30 mph (48 km/h), making them one of the fastest-running birds.
  2. Long-Distance Walkers: Emus are known for their ability to travel great distances to find food and water, often walking several miles a day.
  3. Egg Incubation: The male emu takes on the role of incubating the eggs and does not eat, drink, or defecate during this period, which can last around eight weeks.
  4. Unique Vocalizations: Emus make a range of sounds, including grunting and drumming, which can be heard up to 1.2 miles (2 km) away.
  5. Adaptability: Emus have adapted well to various environments across Australia, from coastal regions to arid inland areas.

Frequently Asked Questions

What do emus eat?

Emus are omnivores and eat plants, seeds, fruits, insects, and small animals.

How tall are emus?

Emus can stand up to 6.2 feet (1.9 meters) tall.

Can emus fly?

No, emus are flightless birds, but they are excellent runners.

Where do emus live?

Emus are native to Australia and inhabit a variety of environments across the mainland.

How long do emus live?

In the wild, emus can live up to 20 years, and sometimes longer in captivity.

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