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Budgerigar: Characteristics, Diet, Facts & More [Fact Sheet]

Welcome to this comprehensive guide on budgerigars, one of the most popular and charming birds kept as pets worldwide! These small, colorful parakeets hail from Australia but have won hearts globally for their cheerful personalities and impressive vocal abilities.

Whether you’re considering adopting one or are simply fascinated by birds, this article offers an in-depth look into the life, habits, and conservation of the budgerigar.

The Budgerigar at a Glance


Class:Aves (Birds)
Species:M. undulatus

Essential Information

Average Size:6-8 inches (15-20 cm)
Average Weight:1.0-1.4 oz (30-40 g)
Average Lifespan:5-8 years (up to 15 in captivity)
Geographical Range:Native to Australia
Conservation Status:Least Concern (IUCN Red List)

Species and Subspecies

The term “budgerigar” typically refers to a single species, Melopsittacus undulatus. However, there are different varieties that have been bred for specific traits like color, feather types, and patterns. These are not distinct subspecies but rather selectively bred variations that fall under the same species.

Key Differences:

  • Color: While wild budgerigars are usually green, captive-bred budgies can be found in a wide range of colors like blue, yellow, and even albino.
  • Size: Show budgerigars are often slightly larger than their wild counterparts and those typically found in pet stores.
  • Feather Pattern: Some bred varieties have unique feather patterns, such as the “pied” and “clearwing” budgerigars, where the distribution and intensity of colors differ from the wild type.
Two budgies


Budgerigars are small, vibrant birds with a streamlined body shape that is well-suited for flight. They are recognizable for their pointed, tapered wings and long tail feathers.

The typical wild budgerigar sports a green body, black-barred wings, and a yellow head, although many other color varieties are available due to selective breeding.

The budgerigar’s anatomy is adapted for a life of constant movement and communication. They have specialized vocal cords that allow them to mimic human speech when kept as pets.

They have strong beaks for cracking seeds, which is their primary food source, and zygodactyl feet (two toes facing forward and two backward) for gripping onto branches or the bars of a cage.

Males generally have a blue cere (the area containing the nostrils, located above the beak), while females have a browner or beige cere. This is most noticeable in adults as juvenile budgerigars often have similar cere colors that change as they mature.

Habitat and Distribution

Budgerigars are native to Australia and inhabit a wide range of environments there, from scrublands to open woodland and grasslands.

They are highly adaptable birds and have even been seen thriving in urban areas where food is readily available. Because they are highly popular as pets, they are also found worldwide in domestic settings.

Budgerigars in habitat


Budgerigars are highly social animals, usually found in flocks in the wild. These flocks can range from just a few birds to several hundred, depending on the availability of food and water.

Budgerigars are diurnal, meaning they are most active during daylight hours. They spend their days foraging, socializing, and taking care of their plumage.

They live in flocks and have a complex social structure. Relationships within the flock are maintained through vocalizations, shared feeding, and mutual preening.

Vocalization is a critical aspect of budgerigar life. They have a range of calls used for different situations, like warning calls for predators or chirps for general communication. When domesticated, budgerigars are known for their ability to mimic human speech, although not all budgerigars will do this.

Diet and Feeding Behavior

Budgerigars are primarily granivorous, meaning their diet mainly consists of seeds. However, they also eat fruits, vegetables, and occasionally insects, making them opportunistic feeders.

In the wild, budgerigars often feed in flocks, taking turns to keep a lookout for predators while others eat. They usually forage on the ground, plucking seeds from various grasses. In a domestic setting, their diet often consists of a balanced seed mix, along with fresh fruits and vegetables.


Being small birds, budgerigars have a variety of natural predators. In their native Australian habitat, they are preyed upon by birds of prey like hawks and falcons. Snakes, large lizards, and mammals like the introduced red fox also pose threats to them.

Budgerigar on a tree

Reproduction and Life Cycle

Budgerigars breed depending on the availability of food and water. They don’t build nests but instead, look for suitable sites like tree hollows or even gaps in buildings for nesting.

Budgerigars have a short incubation period. A female usually lays a clutch of 4-6 eggs, which hatch after about 18-21 days.

The female is primarily responsible for incubating the eggs and feeding the hatchlings. The male plays a supporting role, often guarding the nest and feeding the female. Once the young are old enough to leave the nest, they quickly become integrated into the flock.

Conservation and Threats

Budgerigars are listed as a species of “Least Concern” according to the IUCN Red List. Their population in the wild is stable, and they have a wide distribution in Australia.

Although not severely threatened, budgerigars do face challenges from habitat loss due to agriculture and human development. They are also vulnerable to predation and can be affected by pesticide use.

No specific conservation program focuses solely on budgerigars, but their habitats benefit from general conservation efforts aimed at preserving native Australian flora and fauna.

Fun Facts

  1. Budgerigars are among the most popular pet birds worldwide.
  2. These birds can mimic human speech, although not as clearly as some larger parrot species.
  3. In the wild, budgerigars have been observed practicing a kind of “aerial ballet,” flying in coordinated large flocks.
  4. Budgerigars can see ultraviolet light, a feature that helps them in foraging and mate selection.
  5. They have a specialized tongue that helps them efficiently husk seeds while eating.

Frequently Asked Questions

How long do budgerigars live?

In captivity, with proper care, they can live up to 10-15 years. In the wild, their lifespan is usually shorter due to predators and environmental factors.

Can budgerigars talk?

Yes, especially males are known for their ability to mimic sounds and human speech, although their vocabulary and clarity are generally not as extensive as some other parrot species.

Are budgerigars good for beginners?

Absolutely, their relatively easy care requirements and friendly disposition make them excellent pets for beginners.

What do budgerigars eat?

They primarily eat seeds but should be offered a varied diet that includes fresh fruits and vegetables.

Can I keep multiple budgerigars together?

Yes, they are social birds and usually enjoy the company of their own kind. However, make sure to introduce new birds carefully to minimize stress.

How to tell the gender of a budgerigar?

Adult males generally have a blue cere (the fleshy part above their beak), while females have a more brownish cere. However, this can vary based on age and individual genetics.

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