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Cassowary: Characteristics, Diet, Facts & More [Fact Sheet]

Welcome to this comprehensive guide on the cassowary, a remarkable bird that combines beauty, mystery, and a dash of danger. Native to the tropical forests of northern Australia, New Guinea, and nearby islands, the cassowary is an imposing flightless bird known for its striking blue-black coloration and fearsome reputation.

A true relic of prehistoric times, the cassowary is not only one of the heaviest bird species but also a vital part of its ecosystem. This article aims to shed light on various facets of this extraordinary creature, from its physical characteristics to its behavior, diet, and much more.

The Cassowary at a Glance


Class:Aves (Birds)

Essential Information

Average Size:5.6 feet (1.7 meters)
Average Weight:129 pounds (58.5 kg)
Average Lifespan:40-50 years
Geographical Range:Northern Australia, New Guinea, and nearby islands
Conservation Status:Least Concern (IUCN Red List)

Species and Subspecies

There are three primary species of cassowary:

  1. Southern Cassowary (Casuarius casuarius): The most well-known and studied species. Native to northern Australia, it is the largest and most colorful of the three species.
  2. Dwarf Cassowary (Casuarius bennetti): Smaller than the Southern Cassowary and native to New Guinea and its surrounding islands. It is more adapted to mountainous terrains.
  3. Northern Cassowary (Casuarius unappendiculatus): Native to the coastal swamps and lowlands of northern New Guinea, this species is similar in size to the Dwarf Cassowary but has a less vibrant coloration.

The key differences among these species lie in their size, habitat preferences, and coloration. Southern Cassowaries are the most vividly colored, with deep black plumage and striking blue and black skin, while the other two species are less vibrant but equally captivating.



The cassowary is a large, flightless bird with a body size that can reach up to 5.6 feet (1.7 meters) in height and weigh around 129 pounds (58.5 kg). Its most striking feature is its brilliant blue-black skin and feathers, which serve as excellent camouflage in its dark, forested habitat.

The bird has a helmet-like casque on its head, which is believed to serve various functions including protection and helping it navigate through the forest. This casque is made of a sponge-like material and covered with a layer of keratin.

Another remarkable feature of the cassowary is its powerful legs, each equipped with three toes. The inner toe bears a long, dagger-like claw that can be up to 5 inches (12.7 cm) long. This claw is primarily used for scratching the ground in search of food but can also serve as a formidable weapon.

Male and female cassowaries differ in size and, to some extent, in coloration. Females are generally larger and more vividly colored than males. Males, however, are responsible for incubating the eggs and caring for the young.

Habitat and Distribution

Cassowaries are predominantly found in the tropical rainforests of northern Australia, New Guinea, and some nearby islands. They are well-adapted to a range of environments within these regions, from lowland swamps to mountainous terrains as high as 11,000 feet (3,353 meters).

The Southern Cassowary is primarily found in Australia, while the Dwarf and Northern Cassowaries are native to New Guinea and surrounding regions. They are elusive birds that prefer to reside in dense, remote forests, away from human habitation.

Cassowary head


Cassowaries are generally diurnal creatures, most active during the early morning and late afternoon. They are known for their solitary nature, usually found alone or in pairs during the mating season.

Adult cassowaries are highly territorial and can become aggressive when they feel threatened, especially if cornered. Despite their solitary tendencies, cassowaries have complex social structures, often defined by a dominance hierarchy, particularly among females.

Cassowaries communicate using a range of vocalizations, including deep, booming calls that can be heard up to a mile away. These calls are often used to establish territory or attract a mate. They also use body language, such as puffing up their feathers or lowering their casques, to signal intentions.

Cassowaries are known for their excellent swimming abilities. They are not only proficient in wading but can also swim long distances, using their strong legs to propel themselves through the water.

Diet and Feeding Behavior

Cassowaries are primarily frugivorous, meaning their diet consists mainly of fruits. They feed on a variety of fruits that fall to the forest floor, and their foraging behavior is essential for the dispersal of many plant species.

Occasionally, they may consume fungi, invertebrates, and small vertebrates. Cassowaries use their keen sense of smell to locate ripe fruits and can cover vast areas in search of food.

Although they are not hunters in the traditional sense, they are opportunistic feeders and may consume small animals if readily available.


Adult cassowaries have few natural predators due to their size, powerful legs, and sharp claws. However, young cassowaries and eggs are vulnerable to predation. In their natural habitat, the primary predators include large snakes, birds of prey, and wild dogs.

In regions where humans have encroached upon their natural habitat, domestic dogs have also become a threat. Given the cassowary’s formidable defenses, predators usually go for the younger, more vulnerable individuals.

Southern Cassowary

Reproduction and Life Cycle

The cassowary has a unique mating and reproductive behavior. Males are responsible for building the nest, which is a simple structure made from leaves and other plant materials.

After mating, the female lays a clutch of three to eight large, green eggs. Surprisingly, it is the male who incubates the eggs and cares for the chicks once they hatch. The incubation period lasts around 50 days.

Once the chicks hatch, they are brown and striped, providing them with camouflage against predators. They remain with the male for about nine months, during which they learn essential skills for survival. As they grow, their color changes to match the deep black of adult cassowaries.

Conservation and Threats

The 3 cassowary species are currently listed as Least Concern, but it doesn’t mean they are not facing any threats, depending on the specific species and its geographical location.

The primary threats faced by the cassowary include habitat loss, road accidents, and predation on eggs and juveniles. In regions such as northern Australia and Papua New Guinea, efforts are being made to conserve their habitats through sustainable land management practices.

Some specific conservation programs like the ‘Cassowary Recovery Team‘ in Australia work directly towards the preservation of this unique bird, including public education and awareness-raising efforts.

Fun Facts

  1. Cassowaries Can Swim: Not only are they agile on land, but cassowaries are also good swimmers and can swim across rivers and even in the sea.
  2. Human Interaction: Cassowaries are among the heaviest bird species, and their powerful legs can deliver dangerous kicks. However, they usually avoid human interaction and are shy by nature.
  3. Keystone Species: Due to their role in seed dispersal, cassowaries are considered a “keystone” species in their environment. They play a vital role in maintaining the health and diversity of the forest.
  4. Dad’s the Word: Unlike many bird species, it’s the male cassowary that incubates the eggs and takes care of the young.
  5. Colors and Moods: Cassowaries have brightly colored blue and black skin, which can change shade depending on their mood and health.

Frequently Asked Questions

How dangerous are cassowaries?

While cassowaries can be dangerous if provoked, they are generally shy and will try to avoid human interaction. Cases of cassowaries injuring humans are extremely rare.

What do cassowaries eat?

Cassowaries primarily eat fruits. They are also known to consume fungi, invertebrates, and occasionally small vertebrates.

How long do cassowaries live?

Cassowaries can live up to 40 to 50 years in the wild, although their lifespan can be shorter due to predation and environmental factors.

Are cassowaries good swimmers?

Yes, cassowaries are competent swimmers. They can easily cross rivers and have been observed swimming in the sea.

What role do cassowaries play in their ecosystem?

Cassowaries are considered a keystone species due to their vital role in seed dispersal, which helps in maintaining forest diversity.

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